International Relations Office

Prof. Dr. Paul C. Frost



Professional Positions

Assistant Professor. 2010-present

Department of Biology, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario

Assistant Professor (Limited term). 2007-2010

Department of Biology, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario

Research Scientist. 2005-2006.

Department of Biology, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario

Postdoctoral Research Associate. 2002-2005

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana

Postdoctoral Research Associate. 2002

Department of Civil Engineering & Geological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana


Ph.D. Biology. Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona. 2001

Ecological stoichiometry of trophic interactions in the benthos of boreal lakes.

Advisor: James J. Elser

M.S. Zoology. The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. 1997

Zooplankton in western Lake Erie: Before and after zebra mussels.

Advisor: David A. Culver

B.S. Biological Sciences. University of Rochester, Rochester, New York. 1995

Research Interests

  • Ecological stoichiometry
  • Disease ecology of aquatic ecosystems
  • Landscape effects on aquatic biogeochemistry

Teaching Experience

Trent University

Advanced Ecology: Winter (2010)

Biology of the Invertebrates: Winter (2010)

Behavioural Ecology: Winter (2008, 2009)

Topics in Integrative Ecology: Winter (2007)

Methods in Biological Inquiry: Winter (2006), Summer & Fall (2007, 2008, 2009)

Biogeography: Winter (2006)

Limnology: Fall (2008, 2009, 2010)

Arizona State University

Teaching Assistant

Introduction to Biology: Fall 1997, 2000; Spring 1998, 2001

Limnology: Spring 1999; Spring 2000

Professional Activities

Ad Hoc Reviewer for (during previous 3 years): Aquatic Sciences, Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, Ecology, Ecology Letters, Environmental Conservation, Freshwater Biology, Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, Fundamental and Applied Limnology, Hydrobiologia, Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, Journal of Applied Ecology, Journal of Fish Biology, Journal of Insect Science, Journal of the North American Benthological Society, Journal of Plankton Research, Limnology and Oceanography, Oikos, Oecologia, Photochemistry and Photobiology

Grant Referee for: National Research Organization of the Netherlands, U.S. National Science Foundation, United Kingdom Natural Environment Research Council

Guest lecturer. University of Coimbra, Portugal, 2010. Advanced course in leaf litter decomposition in streams.

Special Session Organizer. International Association of Theoretical and Applied Limnology. 2007. Montreal, Quebec. Disease ecology in aquatic ecosystems.

Guest Editor. Freshwater Biology. Special Issue. Stoichiometry of benthic ecosystems. Published November 2005.

Special Session Organizer. North American Benthological Society. 2004. Vancouver, British Columbia. Photoecology of benthic habitats: Interactions among ultraviolet radiation, organisms, and the environment.

Professional Workshops and Symposia

Advanced course. 2010. Invited lecturer. Leaf litter decomposition in streams. IMAR & University of Coimbra, Portugal.

Gordon Research Conference. 2008. Invited discussion leader. The metabolic basis of ecology. University of New England, Maine.

Gordon Research Conference. 2004 & 2006. Attendee. The metabolic basis of ecology. Bates College, Maine.

Woodstoich 2004. Organizing committee. Symposium for the advancement of ecological stoichiometry. Finse, Norway.

Dissertation Initiative for the Advancement of Limnology and Oceanography V

Symposium. 2003. Attendee. Bermuda Biological Station for Research, Bermuda.

Professional Memberships

American Society of Limnology and Oceanography

Ecological Society of America

North American Benthological Society

Society for Canadian Limnology


  • Rosemary Mackay Fund Award. 2002. North American Benthological Society.
  • Graduate Academic Scholarship. 2000. Arizona State University.
  • National Science Scholarship. 1991-1995. United States Department of Education.
  • Bausch and Lomb Scholarship. 1991-1995. University of Rochester.
  • Valedictorian. 1991. Nyssa High School.


Hicks, A.L. and Frost, P.C. In press. Shifts in aquatic macrophyte abundance and community composition in cottage developed lakes of the Canadian Shield. Aquatic Botany.

Frost, P.C., D. Ebert, J.H. Larson, M.A. Marcus, N.D. Wagner, and A. Zalewski. 2010. Transgenerational effects of poor elemental food quality on an aquatic invertebrate. Oecologia 162: 865-872.

McCarthy, S.D.S., S.P. Rafferty, and P.C. Frost. 2010. Responses of alkaline phosphatase activity to phosphorus-stress in Daphnia magna. Journal of Experimental Biology 213: 256-261.

Frost, P.C., L.E. Kinsman, C.A. Johnston, and J.H. Larson. 2009. Watershed discharge modulates relationships between landscape components and nutrient ratios in stream seston. Ecology 90: 1631-1640.

Frost, P.C., D. Ebert, and V.H. Smith. 2008. Bacterial infection changes the elemental composition of Daphnia magna. Journal of Animal Ecology 77: 1265-1272.

Frost, P.C. and J.J. Elser. 2008. Biological Stoichiometry. In: Encyclopedia of Life Sciences (ELS). John Wiley & Sons. DOI: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0021229

Frost, P.C., D. Ebert, and V.H. Smith. 2008. Responses of a bacterial pathogen to phosphorus limitation of its host. Ecology 89: 313-318.

Hansen, L.K., P.C. Frost, J.H. Larson, and C.D. Metcalfe. 2008. Poor elemental food quality reduces the toxicity of fluoxetine on an aquatic invertebrate. Aquatic Toxicology 86: 99-103.

Hillebrand, H., P.C. Frost, and A. Liess. 2008. Ecological stoichiometry of indirect grazer effects on periphyton nutrient content. Oecologia 155: 619-630.

Johnston, C.A., B.A. Shmagin, P.C. Frost, C. Cherrier, J.H. Larson, G.A. Lamberti, and S.D. Bridgham. 2008. Wetland types and wetland maps differ in ability to predict dissolved organic carbon concentrations in streams. Science for the Total Environment 404: 326-334.

Larson, J.H., P.C. Frost, and G.A. Lamberti. 2008. Variable toxicity of ionic liquids to Lemna minor and the influence of dissolved organic matter. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 27: 676-681.

Rothlisberger, J.D., M.A. Baker, and P.C. Frost. 2008. Effects of periphyton stoichiometry on mayfly excretion rates and nutrient ratios. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 27: 497-508.

Frost, P.C., J.H. Larson, C.T. Cherrier, S. Bridgham, and G.A. Lamberti. 2007. Subsidy effect of dissolved organic matter on accrual, stoichiometry, and algal taxonomy of stream periphyton. Freshwater Biology 52: 319-330.

James, L.A.H., M.A. Xenopoulos, H.F. Wilson, and P.C. Frost. 2007. Landscape controls of nutrient excretion by stream invertebrates along a gradient of agricultural land use. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 26: 523-531.

Larson, J.H., P.C. Frost, D.M. Lodge, and G.A. Lamberti. 2007. Photodegradation of dissolved organic matter from forested streams of the northern Great Lakes region. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 26: 416-425.

Larson, J.H., P.C. Frost, Z. Zheng, C.A. Johnston, S.D. Bridgham, D.M. Lodge, and G.A. Lamberti. 2007. Effects of upstream lakes on dissolved organic matter in streams. Limnology and Oceanography 52: 60-69.

Frost, P.C., J.P Benstead, W.F. Cross, H. Hillebrand, J.H. Larson, M.A. Xenopoulos, and T. Yoshida. 2006. Threshold elemental ratios of carbon and phosphorus in aquatic consumers. Ecology Letters 9: 774-779.

Frost, P.C., A. Mack, J.H. Larson, S. Bridgham, and G.A. Lamberti. 2006. Environmental controls of UV radiation in forested streams of northern Michigan. Photochemistry and Photobiology 82: 781-786.

Frost, P.C., J.H. Larson, C.A. Johnston, K.C. Young, P.A. Maurice, G.A. Lamberti, and S.D. Bridgham. 2006. Landscape predictors of stream dissolved organic matter concentration and physiochemistry in a Lake Superior river watershed. Aquatic Sciences 68: 40-51.

Cross, W.F., J.P. Benstead, P.C. Frost and S.A. Thomas. 2005. Ecological stoichiometry in freshwater benthic systems: recent progress and perspectives. Freshwater Biology 50: 1895-1903.

Frost, P.C., W.F. Cross, and J.P. Benstead. 2005. Ecological stoichiometry in freshwater benthic ecosystems: an introduction. Freshwater Biology 50: 1781-1785.

Frost, P.C., H. Hillebrand, and M. Kahlert. 2005. Low algal carbon content and its effect on the C:P stoichiometry of periphyton. Freshwater Biology 50: 1800-1808.

Frost, P.C. and N.C. Tuchman. 2005. Nutrient release rates and ratios by two stream detritivores fed leaf litter grown under elevated atmospheric CO2. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 163: 463-477.

Frost, P.C., M.A. Evans-White, Z.V. Finkel, T.C. Jensen, and V. Matzek. 2005. Are you what you eat? Physiological constraints on organismal stoichiometry in an elementally imbalanced world. Oikos 109: 18-28.

Frost, P.C., J.H. Larson, L.E. Kinsman, G.A. Lamberti, and S.D. Bridgham. 2005. Attenuation of ultraviolet radiation in streams of northern Michigan. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 24: 246-255.

Frost, P.C., M.A. Xenopoulos, and J.H. Larson. 2004. Stoichiometry of dissolved organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus release by a planktonic grazer, Daphnia. Limnology and Oceanography 49: 1802-1808.

Frost, P.C., S.E. Tank, M.A. Turner, and J.J. Elser. 2003. Elemental composition of littoral invertebrates from oligotrophic and eutrophic Canadian lakes. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 22: 51-62.

Frost, P.C., P.A. Maurice, and J.B. Fein. 2003. The effect of cadmium on fulvic acid adsorption by Bacillus subtilis. Chemical Geology 200: 217-224.

Xenopoulos, M.A. and P.C. Frost. 2003. Ultraviolet radiation changes the taxonomic composition of phytoplankton in a boreal lake. Journal of Phycology 39: 291-302.

Frost, P.C. and J.J. Elser. 2002. Effects of light and nutrients on the accumulation and elemental composition of epilithon in boreal lakes. Freshwater Biology 47: 173-184.

Frost, P.C. and J.J. Elser. 2002. Growth responses of littoral mayflies to the phosphorus content of their food. Ecology Letters 5: 232-240.

Frost, P.C. and M.A. Xenopoulos. 2002. Ambient solar ultraviolet radiation and its effects on phosphorus-flux into boreal lake phytoplankton communities. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 59: 1090-1095.

Frost, P.C., J.J. Elser, and M.A. Turner. 2002. Effects of caddisfly grazers on the elemental composition of epilithon in a boreal lake. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 21: 54-63.

Frost, P.C., R.S. Stelzer, G.A. Lamberti, and J.J. Elser. 2002. Ecological stoichiometry of trophic interactions in the benthos: Understanding the role of C:N:P ratios in lentic and lotic habitats. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 21: 515-528.

Elser, J.J., P.C. Frost, M. Kyle, J. Urabe, and T. Andersen. 2002. Effects of light and nutrients on plankton stoichiometry and biomass in a P-limited lake. Hydrobiologia 481: 101-112.

Xenopoulos, M.A., P.C. Frost, and J.J. Elser. 2002. The combined effects of ultraviolet radiation and phosphorus supply on phytoplankton growth rates and elemental composition. Ecology 83: 423-435.

Frost, P.C. and D.A. Culver. 2001. Spatial and temporal variability of phytoplankton and zooplankton in western Lake Erie. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 16: 435-443.



David Schindler Professor of Aquatic Science
Department of Biology
Trent University
Peterborough, Ontario K9J 7B8

Phone: 705-748-1011 ext. 7903