Electrical synapses (gap junctions) permit fast transmission of electrical signals and passage of metabolites by means of channels, which directly connect the cytoplasm of adjoining cells. A functional gap junction channel consists of two hemichannels (one provided by each of the cells), each comprised of a set of six protein subunits, termed connexins. These building blocks exist in a variety of different subtypes, and the connexin composition determines permeability and gating properties of a gap junction channel, thereby enabling electrical synapses to meet a diversity of physiological requirements.
In the retina, various connexins are expressed in different cell types. We study the cellular distribution of different connexins as well as the modulation induced by transmitter action or change of ambient light levels, which leads to altered electrical coupling properties.
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Urschel S, Höher T, Schubert T, Alev C, Söhl G, Wörsdörfer P, Asahara T, Dermietzel R, Weiler R, Willecke K. 2006. Protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation of connexin36 in mouse retina results in decreased gap junctional communication between AII amacrine cells. J Biol Chem. 281, 33163-33171. PubMed
Shelley J, Dedek K, Schubert T, Feigenspan A, Schultz K, Hombach S, Willecke K, Weiler R. 2006. Horizontal cell receptive fields are reduced in connexin57-deficient mice. Eur J Neurosci. 23, 3176-3186. PubMed