Neuronal calcium sensor (NCS) proteins constitute a family of proteins, which can be further subdivided into five subfamilies. A common feature of NCS proteins is the presence of 4 EF-hand motifs (calcium binding region), which consist of a loop region (12 amino acids) that is flanked by two a-helices (see figure). Almost all NCS proteins harbour at the N-terminus a consensus site for cotranslational myristoylation. Prototype of the NCS protein family is recoverin that is mainly expressed in the vertebrate retina. Another subfamily contains the GCAPs (guanylate cyclase-activating proteins) that regulate the activities of membrane bound guanylate cyclases in the vertebrate retina.
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