Microrobotics and Control Engineering

Research Group:
Microwave-Nanoscopy and Nanorobotics

The research on “beyond CMOS” requires smart tools to investigate, manipulate and transport materials, objects and systems in the nanoscale range. One crucial part along these track is imaging and characterizing the electric and dielectric properties in the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum. With our nanorobotic approach we working on new instruments measureing electric parameters in the GHz region.

Near-Field and contact probing

The developed Scanning Microwave Microscope is integrated into a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM2, right picture).

This novel technology is the fundamental part of the aspired Nanorobotic Microwave Probing and Manipulating System (NMPMS) for Wafer-level In-line Testing of Nanoelectronics and 3D-Heterogeneous-Nanodevices. Precise positioning of an RF probe scanning the region-of-interest (in contact and/or near-field) is necessary to ensure high repeatability of the high-frequency measurements. For this reason, closed-loop automation and calibration methods are other key issues for the implementation of the NMPMS.

Contact person: Olaf C. Haenssler

Automation of contact probing

This field of research deals with the automation of common and new techniques for positioning probers. For some of the processes needed for a high-quality measurement automation can be done very successfully.
One of the actual main researches is the automated contact measurement of electrical parameters of very small structures (e.g. semiconductors). Some of the topics are listed below:

-Automatic calibration of measuring instruments
-Automatic focusing of the measured structures
-Automatic detection of structures (for example with
 template matching)
-Automatic control of the measuring instruments (e.g.
 VNA, motorized probe-holder)
-Automatic acquisition of measurement values (e.g.
 contacting, actual measurement)

With this tools it is possible to solve some problems, especially in the field of "on-wafer contact probing”.

Contact person: Fabian von Kleist-Retzow

Wireless Nanosensor Networks

Another focus is on wireless RF techniques, including data networks and resonant power transfer to micro-/ nanosensors inside SEM. We developed a vaccum-tight Wireless Nanonewton-Forcesensor Network based on ZigBee.

Contact person: Olaf C. Haenssler



On the international level, we are well networked and organized e. g. a special session at the MARSS2017 conference in Montréal.


Current Active Projects

Completed Projects

  • "MEMS-based Scanning Microwave Microscope Integration into a Nanorobotic Environment under Vacuum" (DAAD), Cooperation with Centre for Integrated RF Engineering (CIRFE) at University of Waterloo, Canada (2016-17)
  • "Nanorobotic-assisted Scanning Microwave Microscopy to analyze and manipulate 2D- and Biomaterials" (DAAD-MIUR), Cooperation with Department of Information Engineering at Università Polytecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy (2016-17)
  • "Calibration standard and Nanoautomation of a SMM-in-SEM" (DAAD-IKYDA), Cooperation with the Micro-/Nanoelectronics Group at Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas (FORTH-IESL), Iraklio, Greece (2015-16)
  • "Extending AFM nanocharacterization capabilities: automated assembly of CNT AFM tips and development of scanning microwave microscopy methods" (DAAD-PROCOPE), Collaboration with the NAM6 group at IEMN / CNRS UMR 8520, Lille, France (2013-14)

Group members


  • Lennart Hoffhues
  • Frank Wegmann
  • Ann Yanich


Teaching offers are only available in German. For questions please contact us via email.

Most relevant papers

  • O.C. Haenssler, D. Théron and S. Fatikow: "Multimodal imaging technology by integrated scanning electron, force, and microwave microscopy and its application to study microscaled capacitors", J. of Vacuum Science & Technology B, Nanotechnology and Microelectronics: Materials, Processing, Measurement, and Phenomena, 36, 022901, 2018, DOI:10.1116/1.5006161.
  • K. Haddadi, O.C. Haenssler, K. Daffe, S. Eliet, C. Boyaval, D. Theron, G. Dambrine: "Combined scanning microwave and electron microscopy: a novel toolbox for hybrid nanoscale material analysis", Advanced Materials and Processes (IMWS-AMP), 2017 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Workshop Series on, Pavia, Italy, 20-22 September, 2017, DOI: 10.1109/IMWS-AMP.2017.8247419.
  • O.C. Haenssler, A. Kostopoulos, G. Doundoulakis, E. Aperathitis, S. Fatikow, G. Kiriakidis: “Test standard for Light, Electron and Microwave Microscopy to enable robotic processes”, Manipulation, Automation and Robotics at Small Scales (MARSS), 2017 Int. Conf. on, Montréal, Canada, 17-21 July, 2017, DOI: 10.1109/MARSS.2017.8001907.
  • G. Sassine, N. Najjari, N. Defrance, O.C. Haenssler, D. Theron, F. Alibart and K. Haddadi: "Memristor device characterization by scanning microwave microscopy", Manipulation, Automation and Robotics at Small Scales (MARSS), 2017 Int. Conf. on, Montréal, Canada, 17-21 July, 2017, DOI: 10.1109/MARSS.2017.8016537.
  • K. Haddadi, O.C. Haenssler, C. Boyaval, G. Dambrine, D. Theron: “Near-Field Scanning Millimeter-wave Microscope Combined with a Scanning Electron Microscope”, Microwave Symposium (IMS), 2017 IEEE MTT-S International, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, 4-9 June, 2017,DOI: 10.1109/MWSYM.2017.8058957.
  • F.T. von Kleist-Retzow, O.C. Haenssler and Sergej Fatikow: "Simulation of Probe Misalignment Effects during RF On-Wafer Probing", Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz), 2016, 41st International Conference on, Kopenhagen, September 25-30, 2016, DOI: 10.1109/IRMMW-THz.2016.7758851
  • K. Daffé, G. Dambrine, F.T. von Kleist-Retzow and K. Haddadi: "RF Wafer Probing with Improved Contact Repeatability Using Nanometer Positioning", 87th ARFTG Conference, Measurements for Emerging Communications Technologies, May 27th, San Francisco, CA, USA, 2016, DOI: 10.1109/ARFTG.2016.7501967
  • F.T. von Kleist-Retzow, T. Tiemerding, P. Elfert, O.C. Haenssler, and S. Fatikow: "Automated Calibration of RF On-Wafer Probing and Evaluation of Probe Misalignment Effects Using a Desktop Micro-Factory", J.  of Computer and Communications, 4, pp61-67, 2016, DOI:10.4236/jcc.2016.43009
  • O.C. Haenssler and S. Fatikow: “Manipulating and Characterizing with Nanorobotics: In-situ SEM technique for Centimeter and Millimeter Waves”, Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz), 2014, 40th International Conference on, Hong Kong, August 23-28, 2015, DOI: 10.1109/IRMMW-THz.2015.7327755
  • O.C. Haenssler: “Integration of a Scanning Microwave Microscope and a Scanning Electron Microscope: Towards a new instrument to imaging, characterizing and manipulating at the nanoscale”, Proceedings of the 4th 3M-NANO Conference, October 27-31, Taipei, Taiwan, 2014, Invited Speaker, DOI: 10.1109/3M-NANO.2014.7057302
  • M. Weigel-Jech, O.C. Haenssler, S. Fatikow: “Towards High Density Biosensors for Mobile Diagnostics”, in Proceedings of the IEEE Nanotechnology Material and Devices Conference, (Waikiki Beach, USA), pp. 143-147, 16-19 October 2012, DOI: 10.1109/NMDC.2012.6527580