PhD Projects in SCARE-2
In the following we list topics for new PhD projects in SCARE-2, each one with an acronym (for referring to it), the name of the main supervisor who proposes the topic, an abstract, and a description of the planned research. The topics appear in the alphabetic order of the names of the supervisors.
PhD candidates interested in a topic may consult the supervisor for more detailed information. The research direction may be influenced and changed by the doctorands, both in the beginning and during the project. Once a PhD project has started, a second supervisor will be appointed in agreement with the doctorand.
- Dynamic Reconfiguration as Means to Reducing the Degradation of Components of Robust ICT Systems being Subject to Ageing Effects (WN2)
Synthesis of Remorse Free Strategies for Traffic Sequence Charts
Main supervisor: Werner Damm
Abstract. Traffic Sequence Charts (TSCs) are an extension of Live Sequence Charts (LSCs) offering a concise specification of manoeuvres for highly automated driving. Formally, they can be seen as a visual dialect of a first order linear-time temporal logic, whose visually defined predicates describe traffic snapshots around a bounded environment of the ego car. Message passing elements of LSCs are inherited to describe Car2X communication. The thesis investigates conditions on Traffic Sequence Charts and the underlying world model which allow for the synthesis of remorse-free dominant strategies for the ego car, possibly involving cooperation with other vehicles, to perform the manoeuvres specified in TSCs.
A notion of world models will be defined taking into account the inherent openness, dynamicity, and partial informedness of applications for autonomous highway driving, including dynamic vehicle models. This forms the basis for defining the key concept of remorse- free dominant strategies for TSCs, also taking into account the key notion of robustness. The research will first assume full informedness and investigate cases for which the existence of robust remorse-free dominant strategies is decidable under full information, building on results in AVACS on quasi-decidability of safety properties in non-linear hybrid systems, and derive synthesis procedures for such cases. The work will then follow up one of the two research directions: to provide approximate computational efficient methods for synthesizing remorse- free strategies by performing synthesis on predicate abstractions of the world model, or to investigate the relaxation of full informedness by guaranteeing sufficient levels of environment observations based on realistic sensor models and Car2X communication. The aforementioned two directions could lead to pursuing two related PhD projects.
Probably Approximately Correct Automated Formal Modelling
Main supervisor: Martin Fränzle
Abstract. The traditional formal verification cycle assumes a fixed formal model of the system under design and, if applicable, of its environment. System verification then is pursued based on this “golden device” supplied by the design engineer. This classical notion of design verification, however, lags noticeably behind current trends in cyber-physical system design, where systems become adaptive and may, e.g., learn part of their behaviour only after deployment in situ. Conventional suggestions for dealing with this issue are to either safeguard the system by built-in, fixed —and thus amenable to traditional design verification— interlocking mechanisms overriding any adaptive behaviour or to try verifying the adaption procedures as such. As both approaches do not seem to be able to keep pace with the rapidly increasing integration depth of learning and behavioural adaptation into cyber-physical systems, we do here suggest a complementary new approach: automated mining of formal models featuring rigorously guar- anteed epistemic validity in order to facilitate automatic run-time (re-)verification in presence of substantial behavioural adaptation.
The PhD project will generalise the initial and purpose-specific PAC formal symbolic model learning technique from Fränzle et al. (2015) into a general scheme. It will start from analysing the proposed use-cases of learning and adaptive behaviour in highly automated driving functions in cooperation with the pertinent groups at OFFIS and DLR Brunswick. Based on this, the candidate will develop a generic formal model comprising fixed parts (e.g., the car kinematics) and variable parts subject to learning (e.g., a driving strategy for a certain ma- noeuvre like overtaking). She will then expose techniques for learning an instance of this generic formal model from observations, provide mathematical techniques akin to those from Fränzle et al. (2015) for rigorously quantifying the epistemic validity of the model thus mined, and provide techniques based on quantitative SMT-based verification for robust automatic run-time verification reflecting the statistical nature of the model.
Verifying Infinite-state Graph Transformation Systems
Main supervisor: Annegret Habel
Abstract. Graph transformation systems have been emphasized as suitable tool for modelling systems. In this PhD project, graph transformation systems under adverse conditions shall be investigated: the system and the environment describing the adverse conditions shall be modelled by graph transformation systems, the interaction between them by a finite automaton describing the set of accepted sequences of rule names, and the specification by a temporal graph condition corresponding to a temporal formula.
A theory on algorithmic verification of infinite-state graph transformation systems in the sense of Abdulla et al. shall be given: For a graph transformation system and a temporal graph condition, a labelled transition system shall be constructed. Criteria for well-formedness shall be developed and, for the case of non-well-formedness, semi-algorithms for correctness shall be given.
In the automata-theoretic approach, both the system and the property are represented or translated into automata so that checking the property is reduced to the emptiness problem of languages or the reachability problem of states, respectively. In this PhD project, a labeled transition system shall be constructed from the system and the property: Given a graph transformation system ℛ and a temporal graph condition tc, a construction of a labeled transition system shall be given using the constructions of weakest preconditions and strongest postconditions: For a graph condition c, underlying the given temporal graph condition tc, we construct the weakest preconditions and strongest postconditions for rules ρ ∈ ℛ and the initial or constructed graph conditions, until no new graph conditions can be constructed. It shall be investigated under which conditions the constructed labeled transition system is well-formed in the sense of Abdulla et al. For arbitrary labeled transition systems, semi-algorithms for correctness shall be considered. By product construction, the adverse conditions represented by a finite automaton, shall be integrated. Infinite-state verification shall be illustrated at a larger example, e.g., a railroad system or a car platooning system.
Design Space Exploration for Components of Robust ICT-Systems
under Consideration of Ageing
Main supervisor: Wolfgang Nebel
Abstract. Future microelectronic components of ICT systems in the scale of 22 nm and below are going to experience increased ageing stress and degradation due to nano scale physical effects. The system's (Sys) properties are therefore exposed to changes over time. The magnitude of such changes depends on conditions in the environment (Env) of the system and is also subject to a probability distribution (Sys) within a production batch. At design time the developers of an ICT system only have limited knowledge about the conditions of the environment in which the system will be operated. It is the objective of this research to take these effects into account at design time, in such a way that statistical predications about the expected life time of a system can be made. In this life time the system shall fulfill its specification (Spec) even under uncertain assumptions about the system's (Sys) environment (Env) and its resistance against ageing.
Based on existing methodologies for load dependent modelling of temperature and energy consumption of a system and hereof derived ageing models, this PhD proposal is to develop and implement a methodology as a prototype, which enables the assessment of the to be expected life span of design alternatives, which differ in grades of hardening, provided redundancy or optionally the type of load management at runtime. Later, the evaluation shall be complemented by suitable optimisation heuristics.
Dynamic Reconfiguration as Means to Reducing the Degradation of Components of Robust ICT Systems being Subject to Ageing Effects
Main supervisor: Wolfgang Nebel
Abstract. Dynamic partially reconfigurable circuits are field-programmable systems that allow for the personalisation of new functionality (mapping) for parts of their circuit structure (reconfigurable areas) at runtime. These circuits will in future, that is below the 22 nm process technology, suffer from increased ageing and degradation due to physical effects, too. The properties of these circuits and therefore the including systems (Sys) are thus exposed to changes over time. The magnitude of such changes depends on conditions in the environment (Env) of the system. At the same time the reconfigurability provides high flexibility in terms of mapping functions to hardware resources (reconfigurable areas). This PhD proposal will investigate methodologies that mask degradations effects specifically in behaviour of timing by remapping. Functionality can, e.g., be moved from a (degraded) circuitry into another (less degraded) circuitry. Timing uncritical functionalities could still utilize the already degraded parts of the circuit. This PhD proposal examines applicable methodologies for monitoring the degradation and dynamic control of reconfiguration at runtime.
Based on existing methodologies for load-dependent modeling of temperature and energy consumption of a system, this PhD proposal shall enhance existing ageing models on application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) for reconfigurable circuits. Next, these models shall be integrated into the OSSS+R/Fossy system, to enable a simulative assessment of dynamic replacement strategies and circuit partitions, too. Optionally, a concept for a runtime system to enable the required monitoring and the replacement strategies shall be developed and implemented in a prototype.
Synthesis of Safe Car Controllers
Main supervisor: Ernst-Rüdiger Olderog
Abstract. This PhD project aims at increasing the level of automation in the design of controllers for safe traffic manoeuvres on various types of roads. It will be based on spatio-temporal reasoning, but abstract from the continuous dynamics. As specifications, formulas of a spatio-temporal logic will be taken. Inspiration will be obtained from controller synthesis in discrete event systems and from bounded real-time model checking.
This PhD project will pursue synthesis of car controllers for traffic manoeuvres with the aim of (1) maintaining safety (no collision) and (2) achieving goals such as overtaking within a given time interval if possible (time-bounded liveness). To reduce the complexity of the synthesis, we shall utilise the separation of spatial reasoning from the car dynamics. Starting point for will be an approach by Larsen et al. (2015), and the work by Bochmann et al. (2015), where algorithms are sketched, but automation is still missing. As specifications for which the controllers are synthesised we start from EMLSL formulas of S. Linker (2015).
This research is complementary to PhD project WD1 in that our approach emphasises the decomposition of spatial and dynamic reasoning, whereas WD1 emphasises the need to have a quality measure for strategies even when no winning strategies exist (and then analyses conditions under various levels of informedness for synthesising these).
Distributed Synthesis for Systems with
Main supervisor: Ernst-Rüdiger Olderog
Abstract. This PhD project considers the problem of distributed synthesis for systems with dynamic and possibly unbounded concurrency. The mathematical backbone will be the recently introduced Petri games, where the tokens model environment and system players. Applications can be found in robot control for smart manufacturing, where the environment can generate unboundedly many orders, which are then considered as system players that need to be processed by the robots so that the resulting products satisfy some specification property. Adverse conditions are the dynamically changing concurrency, the limited information of the robots about each other, and the possibility that robots may turn out to be defective. In general the synthesis problem is undecidable for unbounded Petri games, whereas for bounded ones the problem has been proven decidable under some assumptions: see below. The aim of the PhD project is to extend a previously achieved synthesis result for bounded Petri games to patterns of Petri games with unboundedly many players.
Finkbeiner and Olderog (2014) showed that for Petri games with boundedly many system players, a single environment player, and a local safety objective, deciding the existence of a winning strategy for the system players is EXPTIME-complete. Attempting to overcome the assumptions of this decidability result opens various lines of research. This PhD project will pursue one such direction. It will investigate Petri games with dynamically changing, possibly unbounded numbers of concurrently active players. This is beyond reach of the Pnueli-Rosner model and Zielonka automata. Since for unbounded Petri games the existence of winning strategy is general undecidable, the PhD project shall look for restrictions, e.g., patterns of applications, where the problem of distributed synthesis can be proven to be decidable. Besides this theoretical work, the thesis will also address the algorithmic aspects, e.g., by extending the synthesis tool ADAM. Case studies from manufacturing and workflow scenarios with dynamic concurrency will serve to show the applicability of the approach.
Identification of Application-optimized Data Replication Schemes
Main supervisor: Oliver Theel
Abstract. Data replication is a suitable means for providing high data access operations at relatively low operation costs. Although various data replication control schemes are known from literature, is remains an open research question of what scheme is actually the best one for a given application class: assuming a certain workload and workload distribution across a network and availability of the individual replicas, 1) how many replicas of a data item should be installed
where and 2) where should they be installed at? Furthermore, 3) how should the replicas be managed by the replication control scheme such that access operation availabilities exceed a given, application-specific threshold while at the same time access operation costs are limited? Finding answers to these questions, for example by analysis, experiment, simulation or machine learning techniques will be the subject of the proposed project.
This PhD project will identify characteristics of applications that allow to select data replication schemes that are optimized for a given application. In a first step, we will identify properties of
applications that allow to characterize application classes. The properties of an application class allow us to select a data replication scheme tailored to the application class or construct an
optimized data replication scheme exploiting the specific criteria of that class. In a second step - based on the characteristics - instruments and automatable techniques, for example with the help of machine learning techniques, will be developed and implemented that, given an application class and a set of data replication schemes, it automatically selects the best suited data replication scheme. Again, as this will potentially lead to a combinatorical explosion, concepts of the field of computational intelligence lend itself to be used to manage this complexity. An early question to answer will be which heuristics and analytical methods reduce run-time of the selection process while not sacrificing optimality or sacrificing optimality by
an upper bound only, for example, by using heuristic-based optimization like evolutionary algorithms. We plan to work in close cooperation with the Computational Intelligence group headed by Prof. Oliver Kramer.
Impact of Fault Models on Realizability and Costs of Region-adherent, Self-stabilizing Distributed Algorithms
Main supervisor: Oliver Theel
Abstract. Self-stabilization and region adherence are fault tolerance concepts for building extremely dependable distributed systems: whereas self-stabilization eventually recovers a failed system, region adherence postpones total system failure. Region adherence is a concept that has been recently introduced by the research group of the main supervisor. In the scope of the PhD project, we are interested in analyzing the impact of different fault models on the realization of region-adherent and self-stabilizing systems. We are particularly interested in the identification of fault models that "lie in the intersection," meaning that region-adherent and - at the same time - self-stabilizing systems can be realized and what the resulting costs are. Knowing this fault model class will answer the research question of necessary contexts for the deployment of self-stabilizing, region-adherent systems. On the way to this goal, additional interesting research questions arise, like: (1) How can region-adherent systems be designed? (2) How can distributed algorithms be combined such that they result in region-adherent systems? (3) How can a region-adherent system be refined such that it either operates more
cost-efficiently or with improved reliability? etc. In this sketched research area, a potential candidate might define his/her own research focus.
This PhD project will evaluate ramifications of different fault models on the realizability and costs of distributed algorithms wrt. region adherence, self-stabilization, and - in particular - their co-occurrence. In self-stabilization the impact of specific fault models is often not considered, i.e., faults are unconstrained and may modify a system's state arbitrarily. For region adherence the fault model is of major importance, e.g., more less constrained fault models render a system less region-adherent. We plan to dive into the following research questions: (1) How do different classes of fault models affect the cost for self-stabilization? (2) For which characteristics of applications can self-stabilizing, region-adherent algorithms be constructed? (3) How to exploit knowledge of the fault model when designing self-stabilizing, region-adherent distributed algorithms? (4) How can we identify a sweet spot between region adherence and self-stabilization for a particular application?